عنوان مقاله [English]
The Jam's Cup or Jām-e Gītī-namā is a mythical symbol which was firstly portrayed in Firdawsi's Shahnama, and henceforth, frequently appeared in the span of Persian literature; especially in the mystical as well as lyrical poetry. Most of the research that has investigated the origin of the myth to this date, mainly comprise descriptive analysis or short remarks. For instance, DJalal Khaleqi-Motlaq briefly presumes that the mysterious myth of “Paymān-e Gītī”, which is mentioned in Pahlavi texts, is identical to "Jām-e Gītī-namā"; an opinion that is also confirmed and further elaborated by Arash Akbari-Mafakher. In this paper, we demonstrate the motives of a mythical connection between The Jam's Cup and The Paymān based on the above presumption. To this end, we investigate the Jam’s myth by employing a symbological analysis, and comparing it with “The Legend (The Quest) of the Holy Grail” as well as “The Hymn of the Pearl”. According to our study, The Paymān – which is a mysterious form of measurement and balance – in the Jam’s myth, is the actant that leads humans to civilization, and thus, the symbol of his reign. As The Paymān is the symbol of determining measurements and in fact a means to scale and realize the facts of the universe, the central function of The Jam's Cup as a scrying object could be considered as a last version of this symbol in conjunction with other myths of scrying.