Investigating an Ambiguity in the History of the Muzaffarids Dynasty Based on the Poems of Hafez

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate of Persian Language and Literature, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


One of the most important aspects of the poetry of Hafez is the information it offers us about the political history of the 8th century AH. Some events of that era are reflected in the poems of Hafez. A close reading of his Divan, which is filled with the names of political figures, introduces us to some of their positive and negative characteristics. The credibility of this information stems from the fact that Hafez was closely involved with the characters of the time and was present at the heart of many events. One of the figures whose name appears in the poems of Hafez is Khajeh Burhan al-Din Abu Nasr Fathullah, the minister of the Mozzaffarid Amir, Mobarez al-Din Mohammad. There is disagreement among historical sources about his fate after Amir Mobarez al-Din Muhammad was deposed from the throne. Some reports tell of his murder during the arrest of Amir Mobarez al-Din, but some sources speak of his killing after two months in prison. However, none of these accounts are consistent with the insights that the poems of Hafez provide us. In this article, we have used content analysis and a descriptive-analytical approach to try to resolve this historical ambiguity by bringing together the reports of historical sources and the information from the Divan of Hafez. The results of our research show that the deposition of Amir Mobarez al-Din took place in Ramadan of the year 759 AH, and the reports that record the occurrence of this event in the year 760 are not credible. Moreover, Khajeh Borhan Abu Nasr was not killed or imprisoned during the revolt of the Moazzaffarid princes against their father, but was in charge of the ministry of Mozzaffarid Shah Shoja' until his death in Dhu al-Hijja of 760 AH.